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Male Infertility- Factor, Symptoms and causes

Infertility among men is as prevalent as infertility among women. For up to 1/3rd of the couples who experience infertility are affected. The excellent thing is that by either addressing the underlying condition or opting through fertility procedures, most cases of male infertility can indeed be handled. As a man, the amount and quality of the sperm mainly depends on the fertility. If the amount of sperm you ejaculate is lesser in volume, or if the quality of the sperm is bad, it will be challenging to get pregnant, and often impossible.

If the couple has already been struggling for 12 months to get pregnant without success and has sex at least twice a week, it is worth seeing the specialist. It is a good idea to seek support sooner if you are aware of factors that may have an effect on your chances of conceiving a baby. You and your wife can both be screened at the same time for fertility issues.

All kinds of male infertility disorders and sexual dysfunction are treated, such as:

  • Erectile dysfunction 
  • Ejaculatory conditions
  • Premature Ejaculation 
  • Ejaculation Retrograde

In the tubes leading from the testicles to the penis, blockages (often called obstructions) will stop you from ejaculating sperm.

Other causes of infertility that are less common include:

  • Low concentrations of hormones that impact the testicles developed in the pituitary gland (a brain hormone controller) (one in 100 infertile men)
  • Antibodies from sperm (proteins that fight against sperm, which are found in one in 16 infertile men). Sperm antibodies may not impact the possibility of pregnancy in most men, but they can decrease the fertility in some cases.
Male infertility is often just genetic. 

Ejaculated Disorders

Ejaculatory disorders (EjD) are the most prevalent sexual dysfunction for men. It included quick or premature ejaculation (75%), delayed (8%) often caused by nerve or medication, no ejaculation, and retrograde ejaculation (RE) from bladder neck incompetence (ejaculate returns to the bladder instead of out) that occurs after a TURP. Prescription drugs, some chronic health conditions and operations could lead to delayed ejaculation. Or it may be induced, like depression, anxiety or stress, by drug abuse or a mental health problem. It is attributable to a mixture of physical and psychological problems in many situations. RE is the most common cause of EjD in the exclusion of antegrade ejaculation and accounted for 0.3–2% of male infertility. In addition, the background of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for the treatment of testicular cancer is by far the most common explanation for RE in patients in infertility clinics. RE is not harmful, but when little or no sperm exits the penis, it can lead to infertility. 

Male Hormonal Imbalance

Infertility may also be caused by the backward passage of sperm via the bladder, instead of out of the penis. Complications that influence how the testicles function are the most common problems that contribute to infertility in men. Hormone imbalances or obstructions or the lack of any of the ducts in the male reproductive organs are other issues. In male infertility, lifestyle factors and age-related variants also play a significant role. Infertility seldom results from a deficiency in hormones. 

Main Hormones of Fertility

To achieve normal fertility, the proper balance of the following hormones is key. Each one plays its part in the reproductive process, and it can throw a wrench into the whole system if one level is off.

Testosterone (T)

Testosterone affects sex drive (libido), hair growth, erectile function, muscle mass, distribution of fat, and development of sperm.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

FSH increases sperm production.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

To generate testosterone, LH stimulates the testes.

Prolactin (PRL)

Prolactin at elevated levels, like testosterone and sperm output, may impair testicular function and can affect our ability to get an erection.


Testosterone converts to estrogen in men as they age. Estrogen levels may be too high in certain cases, indicating that you do not have enough testosterone to sustain the development of adequate sperm to ensure basic fertility.

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

In order to enhance the thyroid’s production of T3 and T4 hormones, TSH is provided by the pituitary gland.

Hormones of thyroid (T3 & T4)

You can experience poor semen content, low sperm count, erectile dysfunction, low sex drive, and decreased testicular function when the thyroid-producing hormones T3 and T4 are out of equilibrium.

Testosterone and sperm are formed by the testes by LH and FSH. One can experience poor semen content, low sperm count, erectile dysfunction, low sex drive, and decreased testicular function when the thyroid-producing hormones T3 and T4 are out of equilibrium. Treatment with hormone injections (LH and FSH) is typically successful if the condition is due to low testosterone. It can take a year or more of hormone therapy, however, to get adequate output of sperm and get fertility back.

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